Vienna ( (listen); German: Wien [viːn] (listen)) is the federal capital, largest city and one of nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1. 9 million (2. 6 million within the metropolitan area, nearly one third of the country's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre.
The low-lying Danube plain in and around what is now Vienna has had a human population since at least the late Paleolithic: one of the city's most famous artifacts, the 24,000-year-old Venus of Willendorf, now in Vienna's Natural History Museum, was found nearby. Vienna's own recorded history began with the Romans, who founded it in the 1st Century CE as Vindobona, one of a line of Roman defensive outposts against Germanic tribes. Vindobona's central garrison was on the site of what is now the Hoher Markt (the "High Market" due to its relative height over the Danube), and you can still see the excavations of its foundations there today. Vienna hosted the Habsburg court for several centuries, first as the Imperial seat of the Holy Roman Empire, then the capital of the Austrian Empire, and later of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which finally fell in 1918 with the abdication of the last Emperor Charles I. The court tremendously influenced the culture that exists here even today: Vienna's residents are often formal in manner, often showing courtliness, using polite forms of address, and dressing more formally than in other cities. They are considered to blend attitudes that are modern and progressive with those that are more traditional.