Timișoara (UK: , US: , Romanian: [timiˈʃo̯ara] (listen); German: Temeswar [ˈtɛmɛʃvaːɐ̯], also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Hungarian: Temesvár [ˈtɛmɛʃvaːr] (listen); Yiddish: טעמשוואר, romanized: Temshvar; Serbian: Темишвар, romanized: Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Turkish: Temeşvar; Slovak: Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, the 3rd largest city in Romania and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania. The third most populous city in the country, with 319,279 inhabitants as of the 2011 census, Timișoara is the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat.
In September 2016, Timișoara was selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2021. All names of the city are derived from its Hungarian name Temesvár meaning "Castle on Temes river". The territory later known as Banat was conquered by the Hungarians during the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin (895-896). Timișoara was first officially mentioned as a place in either 1212 or 1266 as the Roman fort of Castrum Temesiensis or Castrum regium Themes. The town was destroyed by the Tatars in the 13th century but Timișoara was rebuilt and grew considerably during the reign of Charles I, who, upon his visit there in 1307, ordered the fortress to be fortified with stone walls and to build a royal palace.