Perth is the capital city of Western Australia and is the most isolated capital city of over 1,000,000 people in the world.
The Perth region has been home to the indigenous Nyoongar people for at least the past 40,000 years. British settlers established a free settler colony in 1829 as part of the Swan River Colony. The settlement was given the name "Perth" after the city of Perth, Scotland, the hometown of Sir George Murray, the British Colonial Secretary at that time. From 1850, an influx of convicts boosted the size of the colony and their labour helped shape the early architecture of the city. The discovery of gold in the 1890s triggered a boom which, with subsequent mineral discoveries, has been key to the city's economy. As capital of the state Western Australia, Perth joined the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. Once a small, isolated city, the mining boom in Western Australia following the end of World War 2 has led to a high rate of migration to Perth, which allowed its population to overtake that of Adelaide in the 1980's. While the actual mining takes places in distant, more remote parts of the state, much of the mining-related services sector is based in Perth. Today, Perth remains Australia's fastest growing city, and in recent years has transformed from a relatively laid back city to a fairly vibrant one. Due to the fact that Perth's population growth was relatively recent, it lacks the dense Victorian core of the eastern cities, but makes up for it with its own charm, particularly seen in the numerous parks and other green spaces within close proximity of the CBD.