Ningbo (宁波 or 寧波; Níngbō) is a city in Zhejiang province. The name is also used for the 9,365 km² (3,615 mi²) territory which it administers, including an extensive suburban area, three satellite cities, and two rural counties.
Ningbo is among the busiest ports in the world. Its hinterland, particularly nearby Putuoshan, are popular tourist destinations in Eastern China. Ningbo's "old town" and urban core is centered on the confluence of the Yong and Yuyao Rivers. The area was anciently known as Yǒng (甬) from nearby Yong Hill; Yong is still used as Ningbo's abbreviation in modern Chinese. The Yong empties on Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea and the Ningbonese have had a deep affinity for the ocean throughout their history. The voyages of Xu Fu, sent by the First Emperor in search of the islands of immortality and sometimes credited with initiating the sinicization of Japan, departed from here. Its temples later served as an important staging point in the introduction of Buddhism to Japan. During the Middle Ages, Ningbo was sometimes the sole approved port for foreign trade. During this period, Ningbo included ghettoes for Muslim and Jewish merchants. The Portuguese reached "Liampo" around 1522. They received permission for a settlement in 1542 but their piratical behavior provoked an officially-sanctioned massacre within three years. The British captured "Ningpo" during the First Opium War and—along with Canton (Guangzhou), Amoy (Xiamen), Fuchow (Fuzhou), and Shanghai—it was one of the five Treaty Ports opened to unrestricted foreign trade by the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842. (The spellings changed after the gradual adoption of the Mandarin-based pinyin system since the 1950s.) The Old Bund and the foreign buildings erected around it prior lie in Jiangbei District. Fenghua was the hometown of Chiang Kai-shek.