Munich (German: München, Bavarian: Minga) is the capital city of Bavaria. Within the city limits, Munich has a population of more than 1.5 million, making it the third-most populous city in Germany. Greater Munich including its suburbs has a population of 2.7 million. The Munich metropolitan region which extends to cities like Augsburg or Ingolstadt had a population of more than 6.0 million in 2017.
The year 1158 is the earliest date the city is mentioned in a document signed in Augsburg. By that time Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a bridge over the river Isar next to a settlement of Benedictine monks. Almost two decades later in 1175 Munich was officially granted city status and received fortification. In 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria and Munich was handed over to the Bishop of Freising. The Wittelsbach dynasty would rule Bavaria until 1918. In 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. In the late 15th century Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, and Munich's largest gothic church, the Frauenkirche cathedral, was constructed in only twenty years, starting in 1468. When Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became increasingly influenced by the court and Munich was a center of the German counter reformation as well as of renaissance arts. The Catholic League was founded in Munich in 1609. During the Thirty Years' War Munich became electoral residence, but in 1632 the city was occupied by King Gustav II Adolph of Sweden. When the bubonic plague broke out in 1634 and 1635 about one third of the population died.