Jinan (济南 Jǐnán) is the provincial capital of Shandong in the People's Republic of China. It is located in the North-West of the province. In the South the city is flanked by the hills of The Tai'an massif, while the Yellow River passes North of the city.
The Yellow River basin was China's cultural centre during the Neolithic period, and so it comes as no surprise that the area around present day Jinan has been inhabited for over 4,000 years. The oldest finds in the region are from the Longshan culture, a Late Neolithic culture noted for its advanced black 'egg-shell pottery', sometimes as thin as a millimetre. Fast forward past the Shang and Zhou dynasty. After the fall of the Zhou dynasty many independent states arose during a time known as the Spring and Autumn period. Eventually only a handful remained, striving for power during the Warring States period. During this era Jinan lay on the border of the state of Qi and the state of Lu. The great wall of Qi, to the East of Jinan, is a remnant of this age. It is the oldest Great Wall in China, and portions are accessible as open air museum. Lu (鲁） on the other hand was the home state of Confucius, and the character is still used as abbreviation for Shandong.