Jena is a city in the German state of Thuringia (Thüringen).
Jena was first mentioned in historic documents between 830 and 850 AD. It received the rights of a city in 1332 and its university, one of the biggest universities in Germany, was founded in 1558 and named after Friedrich Schiller in 1934. Friedrich-Schiller-University has around 20,000 students. Additionally, there are some 4,500 students at the university of applied sciences (Fachhochschule). With just 110.000 inhabitants, one out of four inhabitants is a student. With strong presence of the University and a large number of other research institutions, science, research and teaching strongly shape the face of the city. Jena, together with its neighboring city Weimar are considered central places of the German classical period. Goethe and Schiller, probably the two greatest German writers, lived in Jena as well as for example the biologist Ernst Haeckel, the physicists Ernst Abbe and Erwin Schrödinger and the philosopher Karl Marx. Jena is also famous for its Carl Zeiss optics and the Schott glass factories. Still important to Jena, the number of workers drastically declined after Jena became part of capitalistic Germany.