Gainesville is the county seat and largest city in Alachua County, Florida, United States, and the principal city of the Gainesville, Florida, metropolitan statistical area. The US Census Bureau estimated Gainesville's population at 133,857 in 2018, a 7. 4% increase from 2010.
Gainesville is the largest city in the North Central Florida region. The Gainesville metropolitan statistical area had an estimated population of 288,212 in 2018. Gainesville is home to the University of Florida, the nation's fifth-largest university campus by enrollment. There is archeological evidence, from about 12,000 years ago, of the presence of Paleo Indians in the Gainesville area, although it is not known if there were any permanent settlements. A Deptford culture campsite existed in Gainesville and was estimated to have been used between 500 BCE and 100 CE. The Deptford people moved south into Paynes Prairie and Orange Lake during the first century and evolved in to the Cades Pond culture. The Deptford people who remained in the Gainesville area were displaced by migrants from southern Georgia sometime in the seventh century. These migrants evolved into the Alachua culture and they built their burial mound on top of the Deptford culture campsite.