Canberra is the capital city of Australia. The city is located in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), an enclave in the south-east of New South Wales.
Canberra was established in 1913 as the capital for the newly federated Australian nation. The ACT was excised from New South Wales and put under the control of the federal government. The creation of the planned city was not without critics who claimed it was a "waste of a good sheep pasture". Canberra's design was conceived by the American architects Walter Burley and Marion Mahony Griffin, built on the shores of an artificial lake (Lake Burley Griffin). Populated at first largely by politicians and public servants, it took time to develop its own identity and culture. Extensive building of national facilities and a concerted effort to develop public institutions in the city have made it an interesting destination.