Brisbane is the capital of the state of Queensland with a population of about 2 million people, making it the third-largest city in Australia.
For many thousands of years Aboriginal people have lived in what is now known as Brisbane. In 1823, John Oxley was the first English colonist to explore Brisbane, which was then selected by the colony of New South Wales as the location for a new jail, intended to house dangerous prisoners in a remote location. The settlement was named "Brisbane" after Sir Thomas Brisbane, the Governor of New South Wales at that time. The original settlement was established in what is now the suburb of Redcliffe but was later moved to a location further down the bay. In 1837, free settlers moved to the area and pushed to close the jail and to release the land in the area. In 1859, a gold rush led to the establishment of the colony of Queensland with Brisbane as its capital, named after Sir Thomas MakDougall Brisbane, the sixth Governor of New South Wales.