Bangalore (Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು), also known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is India's third-largest city with an estimated population of 8,474,970 (2011).
The earliest records of a place named 'Bengaluru' are found in a 9th-century temple in an area that is now known as 'Old Bangalore'. Legend has it that the feudal lord Kempe Gowda was once hunting in this area, a rabbit turned and attacked his dog. This made a great impression on Gowda and he gave the place a title of gandu bhoomi (the place of heroes) and in 1537, with the assistance of the local king, he constructed three districts protected by a walled fort on the site. During the next three centuries, Bangalore existed very much in the shadow of its neighboring city Mysore, and control of the town changed hands many times. The year 1831 marked a major turning point for the city. Claiming misrule by the king Krishna Raja Wodeyar III, the British took control of the Mysore Kingdom and, possibly influenced by the city's salubrious climate, moved the administrative capital to Bangalore. New telecommunication systems were laid, rail connections built, fine government buildings constructed, and the city's famous parks and gardens established. After independence, Bangalore maintained its position as the Karnataka state capital and continues to flourish.